Methods & Data

Key informant interviews:

In-depth interviews (n=39) with 54 key individuals situated at different places on the chain of demographic data collection and analysis. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using N6 to facilitate analysis. All interviews (suitably anonymised) will be made available via Permission has been requested from all respondents to quote from their interview. Key themes for coding were developed based on research hypotheses but further codes were developed inductively after reading and re-reading all interviews. All interviews were coded independently by two researchers.

Case Studies:

Interviews in a range of settings with Tanzanians about the membership of their household and their residence, production and consumption.

  • Dar Es Salaam: Interviews (n=24) were undertaken in two different low income areas of Dar Es Salaam using four experienced interviewers from a university-based consultancy. Participants were organised in advance to expect us, and told the basic aims of our interviews, through personal contacts and local leaders, resulting in high levels of cooperation. Our fieldwork supervisor selected a range of different household types and circumstances, and the interviews involved one of the authors working with an experienced interviewer. Most interviews were recorded and all were in Swahili.
  • Maasai agropastoralist community: Interviews (n=8) were collected using a university educated interpreter from that community who had previously worked there as a research assistant for an anthropologist who was also present, having worked on the literature review for this project. Both knew the households and respondents well and provided supplementary information for triangulation. All interviews were recorded and were in Maa. A further interview was undertaken with a Swahili household living in this area.
  • Rufiji community: Interviews (n=20) were collected by a research student with in-depth knowledge of the community and its setting. Most interviews were recorded and all were in Swahili.
Review of definitions of the household in:
  • Censuses and surveys over the last 50 years in Anglophone African countries
  • A range of UN documents on household surveys and censuses produced by UN Statistics Division
  • UK and some European survey series where documentation was available in English